If you start talking about problems with reading, small children with a poor phonetic set immediately come to mind, who are struggling to decipher the letters and make them understood. And there are people-schoolchildren and students-who think they can read, but in fact experience a lot of difficulties with understanding words, images, conclusions, and reasoning.
If a child is good at deciphering text, we usually assume that they are good readers. But at the same time, the teacher may notice that the child freely "decodes" the text, but does not understand it. One way or another, both children who can't decipher and children who don't understand what is deciphered are children with reading problems. However, the latter are much less visible, and their problem is much more likely to escape the attention of adults. The child begins to fail tests and does not understand half of what is passed in the classroom - write my essay for me.
The sooner you start solving this problem, the better. But it's best to remember that to complete the correction, you don't just need to practice — for example, read passages and ask questions about them — but use a comprehensive approach that includes several important things.
The following understanding skills and strategies can be used for the entire class. Teachers can help students choose reading material that matches their current vocabulary and abilities, so that in the classroom, children read the text and work at the levels available to each of them.
1. Recent research shows that difficulties with reading comprehension may stem from poorly developed oral speech, which is formed long before the child begins to learn reading. It turns out that students who have problems with reading comprehension also often understand fewer words spoken in oral speech, that is, less of what they hear. They are worse at conversational grammar. So, in order to effectively solve problems with reading comprehension, teachers may need to apply an approach that teaches vocabulary and understanding first in oral speech and only then in writing.
2. Children who do not understand what they read often suffer from a small vocabulary, so it is useful for them to spend a lot of time learning new words. One way is a multisensory approach: for example, images, intelligence maps, or mnemonics. Improving their General language skills increases the likelihood that they will understand the words they encounter in a written text. Since it is impossible to know and remember every word, the child should be taught different types of contextual hints and how to use them to determine the meaning of unknown words.
3. As soon as a child has enough vocabulary to understand every word in the text, they find it difficult to hold their attention and keep track of all the details, or, for example, to get access to indirect information and the hidden meaning of the text.
In this case, the teacher can teach the child several cognitive strategies for reading text that can help: among them, an abstract, SQ3R, and a KWL diagram. They help:
Each child can choose the strategy that works best for them. Extracting deeper meaning from a text using strategic thinking can be useful not only for reading comprehension, but also for writing.
4. Let students engage in mutual learning-it encourages the child to take the lead and think about their thought process while reading. Teachers can use mutual learning during class discussions, with text that is read aloud, and then with text that is read in groups. Students must divide into four types and then alternate between them.
Participant 1. The one who asks the question. It asks about parts of a lesson, discussion, or text that are unclear or confusing to help establish a connection with previously studied material.
Participant 2. Someone who will record important things — for example, details from the text or important points of the discussion.
Participant 3. The one who will answer the questions asked by the first participant, and will be responsible for ensuring that the answers to these questions are clear to everyone.
Participant 4. Someone who will make a prediction about what will happen next based on what has been presented, discussed, or read.
5. Students must be taught the skills of understanding the text: they need to know what is the sequence, what is the structure of the text and the storyline, how to draw a conclusion from what they read, what is the figurative language and what types it has. Students should be able to first use the skills with the text they hear when the teacher reads aloud, and then with the text they read on their own and understand at their own level.